BA PROGRAMME

The full programme of English and Celtic Studies course can be found HERE in pdf format.

1BA

2BA

3BA

WELSH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (1), 1 BA

This course is designed for the 1BA students of the English and Celtic Studies course who have no previous knowledge of and skills in the Welsh language. The course aims at developing basic communicative skills in Welsh. In terms of language skills, after completing the course, students will be able to: introduce themselves and hold a basic conversation, ask and give basic information about themselves, their families and other people, discuss leisure interests, the weather, time, health, places and plans, discuss past events, what they did and what other people did tell what happened in a particular order, say what has to be done and what mustn’t be done, give basic commands and instructions, express an opinion using adjectives, ask for something and express a need, describe how someone/something looks. In terms of grammar points, students will learn the following structures: present tense of ‘to be’, consonant mutations, possessive pronouns, past tense, imperfect tense, future tense, the definite article, commands, etc. Regular attendance is necessary. Students are assessed on the basis of regular quizzes, tests, homework assignments and participation in class activities. The course ends with a written and oral exam. Course books and course materials are available in the Novum library and/or provided by the teacher.

WELSH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (2), 2BA

This course is designed for the 2BA students of the English and Celtic Studies course who have successfully completed the 1BA Welsh as a foreign language course. Knowledge of basic Welsh is required as the course builds up on the material covered previously. In terms of language skills, after completing the course, students will be able to: give detailed information about their personal details (name, home, family, interests), discuss past events, give detailed description of people (looks, traits of character) and places, discuss problems and solutions, express personal opinions, preferences, give advice, future plans, discuss distance, size, weight, dates and periods of time, read shorter texts in Welsh. In terms of grammar points, students will learn the following structures: present tense, past tense, future tense, perfect tense, conditional form, noun clauses, adverbial clauses, emphatic constructions, passive voice, expressing modality (should, would, could, must), comparative and superlative adjectives, and conjugated prepositions. Regular attendance is necessary. Students are assessed on the basis of regular quizzes, tests, homework assignments and participation in class activities. The course ends with a written and oral exam. Course books and course materials are available in the Novum library and/or provided by the teacher.

WELSH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE WITH ELEMENTS OF DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR, 3BA

This course is designed for the 3BA students of the English and Celtic Studies course who have successfully completed the 2BA Welsh as a foreign language course. The aim of the course is to expand on the language skills acquired over the previous two years; therefore, the knowledge of Welsh at the pre-intermediate level is required. In the third year, more emphasis is put on writing and reading skills, in addition to practicing and developing oral skills. In terms of language skills, after completing the course, students will be able to: read longer and more advanced texts in Welsh, write short paragraphs/essays/letters in Welsh, discuss personal details, talk about events and places in the present, past and future, describe people and places, discuss television programmes, books, films, current events etc. using advanced vocabulary and structure. In terms of grammar points, students will learn the following structures: relative clauses, emphatic clauses, conjugated pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, consonantal mutations, constructions with cael, impersonal constructions, noun clauses, adjectives, conditionals, etc. Regular attendance is necessary. Students are assessed on the basis of regular quizzes, tests, homework assignments and participation in class activities. The course ends with a written and oral exam. Course books and course materials are available in the Novum library and/or provided by the teacher.

IRISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE 1, 1BA

IRISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE 2,  2BA

This course builds upon the linguistic basis provided by the previous year of study. Students continue to develop vocabulary and the ability to converse in Irish about subjects such as the house, family, hobbies, the workplace, food, health, clothes and money. Particular emphasis will be placed on competence in expressing opinions, likes and dislikes. Students will become familiar with the past, present and future tenses, and will learn the ordinal numeral system. Students will become familiar with the imperative tense and will be able to understand and make commands. They will also learn to write short passages on these topics and an emphasis will be placed upon written accuracy in Irish. The topography of Ireland will be presented through the Irish language. Classes will involve a mixture of grammatical instruction, listening practice, oral exercises, and reading comprehension. Regular attendance is required. Students will be able to monitor their own progress by means of homework assignments and class tests. Formal assessment is by means of a final written examination and an oral examination. The principal textbook for the course is: Eamonn O Donaill, Gaeilge gan Stro (Dublin, 2010/2011), at both beginners and lower intermediate levels. Other materials will be provided by the instructor.

IRISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE 3,  3BA

Third year BA students of Irish are expected to acquire intermediate proficiency in the language. Students will learn to express themselves in oral and written form about topics such as the weather, holidays, education, professional life, and the family. Students will revise the past, present and future tenses before moving on to study of the conditional tense in Irish. They will also study the genitive case and declensions in Irish. Students will develop their oral command of the language and will practice writing short texts in Irish. They will also be expected to understand intermediate level reading comprehension texts. Regular attendance is necessary as is the submission of homework assignments. Students are required to deliver short presentations in Irish on subjects of their choosing to develop spoken confidence. The course ends with both a written and an oral examination. The main textbook for the course is: Eamonn O Donaill, Gaeilge gan Stro (Dublin, 2010/2011), at both beginners and lower intermediate levels. Further materials will be made available by the instructor.

INTRODUCTION TO CELTIC STUDIES (1BA)

This course aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to Celtic Studies and, consequently, enable students to gain basic knowledge of this broad field of research. The initial lectures outline the Celtic presence and developments on the European continent, i.e. major theories on the origin of the Celts, characteristics of their civilization, migration patterns as well as social and religious organization. Then, the focus is shifted to the linguistic dimension: Celtic languages from both a diachronic and synchronic perspective, their position within the Indo-European family group, their status of minority languages and their modern-day maintenance. Finally, students are exposed to the socio-cultural dimension of contemporary Celtic studies: popular motifs derived from Celtic literatures as present in popular culture, Celtic naming patterns or Celtic diasporas in the world. The course finishes with a look at the history of Celtic scholarship in Poland and abroad.

WELSH CULTURE AND HISTORY (1BA)

This course aims to provide an overview of various socio-cultural aspects of the life of the Welsh. The topics covered in class include: (1) the political system of Wales, political parties, Welsh devolution and the role of the Welsh Assembly Government, (2) education in Wales with emphasis on the education in the Welsh language, (3) the history of the Eisteddfod festival and its role in the development, cultivation and popularisation of the Welsh language literature and culture as well as its influence on distinct Welsh identity, (4) the Welsh language media (the development of the Welsh language press, radio, television, the use of Welsh on the internet and social media), (5) Welsh nationalism (past and present), (6) Welsh traditions, customs and holidays (6) Welsh classical and popular music (Cool Cymru), their influence on Welsh identity and contribution to the British culture, (7) Welsh film industry, (8) sport in Wales, (9) geography of Wales, (10) the Welsh language outside Wales (emigration to Patagonia, the USA and other places), (11) Welsh economy and industry, (12) Welsh art. Regular attendance is necessary. Students are assessed on the basis of in-class discussions, short presentation on the chosen topics, final test and project work. Course materials are available on the moodle platform. Additional materials are available in the Novum library.

IRISH CULTURE AND HISTORY (1BA)

The course in Irish culture begins with a brief historical outline, in order to understand Irish culture in its proper historical context. Students will study the Norman, Tudor, Cromwellian and Williamite conquests of Ireland. They will then move on to study of modern Ireland, with the emergence of the Catholic emancipation movement, the land reform and home rule movements and Irish nationalism. In the post-partition period, students will study the development of the Irish Free State and Irish Republic and the politics of the Stormont administration of Northern Ireland. They will also come to understand the emregence of the Northern Irish “Troubles”. This course takes cognisance of the relationship between cultural movements and the emergence of modern Ireland, and close attention will be paid to the Gaelic Revival and to the importance of Irish writers in English such as W. B. Yeats. Materials such as paintings, sculpture and poetry will illustrate the course of events in Ireland. Modern Irish media and its film industry will also be explored. Students will study Irish government policy towards the Irish language and the decline of the ‚Gaeltachtai‘, as well as the more recent revitalisation of the Irish language movement by organisations such as TG4. Other important cultural organisations such as the Gaelic Athletic Association will also be discussed.

HISTORY OF WALES (2BA)

The course presents the history of Wales from ancient times to the modern era. It begins with a brief introduction to the Celts and discusses the Roman conquest of Britain, paying particular attention to ancient written sources, such as Caesar’s Gallic War and the Annals by Tacitus. The effects of the Anglo-Saxon invasions are discussed along with the processes of the Christianization of the British Isles. The medieval period is discussed in detail, with special attention given to the unification of Welsh lands by successful native rulers such as Rhodri Mawr and Gruffydd ap Llywelyn as well as the codification of law attributed to Hywel Dda. The latter lecture is supplemented with discussion of European law from ancient and medieval times. The students are also introduced to primary historical sources from the era (such as Historia Brittonum, Annales Cambriae and legal texts). The final medieval history lectures devote attention to the conquest of Wales by Edward I and the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr and its aftermath. The lecture on the Tudor period discusses the “acts of union” between England and Wales, the significance of the Reformation and the importance of translating the Bible into Welsh. Subsequently, the course deals with the Stuart period and the situation of Wales during Cromwell’s dictatorship. Lectures about 18th century Wales concentrate mostly on the Methodist Revival as well as on academic and literary activities of the Welsh. The 19th century is discussed in detail. Topics covered include industrialization, changes in society and new ideologies (e.g. the formation of the Working Class, Chartism), the campaign for disestablishment and home rule, the role of Nonconformism in the formation of the Welsh national consciousness, and educational reforms. The source material for this period consist of letters, newspapers/magazines, memoirs, and official documents . The course ends with a look at the twentieth and twenty first centuries, concentrating particularly on the effect of two world wars, the social revolution of the 1960’s and the establishment of the Welsh Assembly as a law making body.

HISTORY OF IRELAND (2BA)

History of Ireland is a one semester course. Classes consist of lectures, classes analysing historical sources and group discussion. It begins with a description of the medieval period, with emphasis on the history of Christianity in Ireland (especially the role of St. Patrick), relations with England and the structure of medieval Irish society. When discussing the early modern period, the course concentrates on topics such as the Reformation and the reign of the Tudors, the uprising of Hugh O’Neill, the Plantation of Ulster, the period of Cromwell’s dictatorship and the repercussions of the Glorious Revolution. The Nineteenth Century is discussed in detail by focusing on issues such as the national identity of the Irish, Catholic emancipation, disestablishment of the Church of Ireland, Land Reform, the Home Rule Movement and the formation of the Irish Parliamentary Party. The Twentieth Century is discussed in two parts. The first part deals with the partition of Ireland, the formation of the Irish Free State and the immediate consequences of these events. The second part discusses the subsequent history of the Republic of Ireland (Eire) as well as Northern Ireland. Particular attention is paid to the so-called “Troubles” of the latter, especially regarding their political and religious/sectarian background. The course concludes by discussing the political parties of the Republic and their ideologies, as well as current Irish affairs such as the status of the Catholic Church in Ireland and the recent Marriage Equality Referendum.

During the course the students will become familiar with significant Irish men and women such as Patrick Pearse, Mary Robinson, Daniel O’ Connell, Michael Collins). The students will also be presented with source material such as the Constitution of Ireland, as well as texts of cultural and political significance such as Douglas Hyde’s The necessity of de-Anglicising Ireland.

DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF WELSH (2BA)

This course aims to provide an overview of the grammar of the Welsh language from the synchronic perspective. The course begins with the discussion of selected aspects of the phonetics and phonology of Welsh, such as Welsh consonants, vowels and diphthongs, Welsh syllable structure, main stress patterns, assimilations, vowel affection, etc. North and South Walian dialects are compared and contrasted. The course continues with the discussion of the morpho-phonological processes of initial consonant mutations in Welsh. Finally, the course provides an overview on the selected aspects of the morphology of the contemporary Welsh language, such as the morphology of verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns and conjugated prepositions. Regular attendance is necessary. Students are assessed on the basis of regular quizzes and tests, homework assignments and class participation. Course materials are available on the moodle e-learning platform. Additional course materials are provided by the teacher. The course ends in a written exam.

DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF IRISH (2BA)

Students of this course will gain an in-depth knowledge of Irish grammar. They will learn the tenses in Irish, first and second conjugation verbs, and irregular verbs. Students will study the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives. Students will learn the importance of gender and number in Irish nouns and adjectives. They will also study the genitive, vocative and dative cases in Irish and the declensions of nouns. Students will learn complex syntax and will practice grammar exercises on a regular basis. The course ends with a written examination. The coursebooks are: Nollaig Mac Conghail, Irish Grammar: A Basic Handbook; Irish Grammar Book; Nancy Stenson, Basic Irish: A Grammar and workbook. Other materials will be provided by the instructor.

HISTORY OF WELSH LITERATURE (2BA)

This course discusses texts from the earliest times (sixth to ninth centuries) to contemporary literature. Both Welsh and English language texts are covered. The course begins with the poems of Taliesin and Aneirin (the so called Cynfeirdd), whose works are considered to be the earliest surviving examples of Welsh literature. After analysing the poetry of the Gogynfeirdd (12th to 14th centuries), attention is paid to the Cywyddwyr (14th to the 17th centuries) with emphasis in particular on the poetry of Dafydd ap Gwilym, considered to be one of the greatest Welsh poets of all. The aforementioned works are placed in the literary and historical context of the era, and read together with historical source texts. Lectures are also devoted to prose texts from the era especially the Mabinogion, the most famous collection of early Welsh prose. The course discusses the role of poets in medieval Welsh society and the features and construction of metrical verse. Subsequently, the Protestant reform movement as a literary trope will be analysed. Students will also study poetry against the background of the Methodist revival. They will learn about antiquarian and other works e.g. Archaeologia Brittanica, which represented an increased interest in native history and culture. Discussion about the produce of the nineteenth century opens with the literature associated with political ideologies and events – industrialization and Chartism, the quest for disestablishment, home rule and educational reforms. The students have the opportunity to familiarise themselves with these texts by reading 19th century articles from magazines such as ‘Cymru Fydd’ and ‘Young Wales’. Novels from this period of time, particularly those of Daniel Owen, as well as religious writing (especially the hymn writing tradition) are studied. The course closes with the literature of the 20th and 21st centuries. Amongst the authors covered are the First World War poet Ellis Humphrey Evans (Hedd Wyn), playwright, poet and political activist Saunders Lewis and the celebrated poet and playwright Dylan Thomas. Much attention is also devoted to the traditional Welsh cultural festival- the Eisteddfod- with its celebration of poetry, prose and performing arts.

HISTORY OF IRISH LITERATURE (2BA)

This course will focus on the history of Irish literature in the early modern period, between 1500 and 1800. In this period the Irish language descended from its peak of power to become the language of an impoverished rural class whose numbers would suffer serious decline as a result of the nineteenth century Great Famine and emigration. The early modern period witnessed the latter phase of Classical Irish and the emergence of more vernacular forms. Literature in this period was political and was a means by which to express social order, political imperatives, confessional ideologies, and community tragedy. Thus, students will learn about the historical events which propelled the decline in the Irish language’s fortunes and which prompted literary output. Students will learn about the various formulaic styles of language that existed in 1500 and about the training and role of Irish poets. They will be introduced to the principal poets of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. They will then study the heirs to the classical poetic tradition, such as Daibhi O Bruadair, before learning about the eighteenth century ‚aisling’ genre, which was closely related to the exile of the House of Stuart in Europe. Materials will be provided by the instructor. The course finishes with a written examination.

THE HISTORY OF THE WELSH LANGUAGE (3BA)

This course examines the history of the Welsh language from its emergence as a separate Brittonic language until the present day. Students will get acquainted with the development of the internal structure of the language i.e. orthography, phonology, morphology and syntax of Old and Middle Welsh as well the origin and the development of consonantal mutations. In addition, the Welsh will be looked at from the social-historical perspective. The course will discuss the socio-historical events and processes that contributed to the decline of the Welsh language and its gaining a minority language status.  Finally, the present sociolinguistic situation of Welsh is discussed. Regular attendance is necessary. Method of assessment is chosen by the tutor but may include regular tests and quizzes, term essay or a project. The course is available of moodle e-learning platform. Course materials are provided by the tutor. Additional course materials are available on moodle and in the Novum library.

MINORITY LANGUAGE STUDIES (3BA)

This course aims to situate the study of Celtic languages in a broader framework of minority language studies. The course begins with a résumé of the history of the Celtic languages, and then goes on to discuss the concept of language “death”, looking at the “death” of Breton and Gaelic as case studies. The course then focuses on language revitalization (Breton) and revival (Cornish and Manx) and the difference between the two processes. The next topic focuses on language maintenance and looks at the question of Welsh language maintenance and expansion. The next issue to be examined is language activism in the Celtic countries, followed by the presence of Celtic languages on the American continent. The course concludes with general considerations of minority language sociolinguistics and examines other situations of language minoritization (e.g. the Basques and the Ainu).

References
Brooks, Simon. 2013. The regionalisation of Y Fro Gymraeg. Planet extra. http://www.planetmagazine.org.uk/html/newsite/onlinedetails/census_2011.html
Edwards, John. 2010. Gaelic in Scotland. In Edwards, John. Minority languages and group identity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 129-148.
Edwards, John. 2010. Gaelic in Nova Scotia. In Edwards, John. Minority languages and group identity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 149-172.
Edwards, John. 2010. Languages in conflict and contact II. In Edwards, John. Minority languages and group identity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 37-56.
Harrison, K. David. 2007. When languages die. OUP. Chapter 1, 3-22.
Hornsby, Michael. 2010. From the Periphery to the Centre: recent debates on the place of Breton (and other regional languages) in the French Republic. In Millar, Robert McColl (ed.) Marginal Dialects: Scotland, Ireland and Beyond. Aberdeen: Forum for Research on the Languages of Scotland and Ireland, 171-97. ISBN: 978-0-9566549-0-8. http://www.abdn.ac.uk/pfrlsu/uploads/files/Hornsby,%20From%20the%20Periphery%20to%20the%20Centre.pdf
Hornsby, Michael & J. Shaun Nolan. 2011. The regional languages of Brittany. In Fishman, Joshua A. and Ofelia García (eds.) Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity. The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts. Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 310-322.
Johnson, Ian. 2009. ‘How Green is their Valley? Subjective Vitality of Welsh in the Chubut Province, Argentina’. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 195, 141-171
Ó Riagáin, Pádraig. 2008. Irish-language policy 1922-2007: Balancing Maintenance and revival. In Nic Pháidin & Ó Cearnaigh (eds.) A new view of the Irish language. Dublin: Cois Life, 55-65.

ECOLOGY OF THE CELTIC LANGUAGES (3BA)

This course will examine the current state of the Celtic languages spoken in Britain, Ireland and France today and complements the course on Minority Celtic Language Studies. This course is more descriptive and will examine, in detail, the varying uses of each of the Celtic languages, according to Fishman’s model of Reversing Language Shift:

  1. The use of the language for local and regional work by both insiders and outsiders
  2. Literacy in the language transmitted through education
  3. The age profile of literate language users
  4. Full intergenerational transmission
  5. Partial intergenerational transmission
  6. Evidence of language shift

Populist writings on each of the languages will also be examined, to determine which language ideologies are prevalent in those Celtic areas, held by both Celtic-language speakers and outsiders alike (e.g. Drysdale 2002, Tanner 2006, Petro 2009).

References:
Drysdale, Helena. 2002. Mother Tongues: Travels through Tribal Europe. London: Pan Macmillan.
Kandler, Anne, Roman Unger and James Steele. 2010. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain’s Celtic languages. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 12 December 2010 (365: 1559), 3855-3864
Ó Néill, Diarmuid. 2005. Rebuilding the Celtic Languages: Reversing Language Shift in the Celtic Countries. Talybont: Y Lolfa.
Petro, Pamela. 2009. Travels in an Old Tongue: Touring the World Speaking Welsh. London: Harper Collins.
Tanner, Marcus. 2006. The Last of the Celts. Yale University Press.

HISTORY OF THE WELSH LANGUAGE (3BA)

to be included soon

HISTORY OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE (3BA)

The course aims to provide an overview of the history of the Irish language, from its beginnings until the present day. The course begins with the discussion of different hypotheses concerning the origin of the Celtic languages and the coming of the Celts to the British Isles. Then, Ogham – the archaic Irish alphabet is discussed. The course continues with the analysis of Irish grammar in different historical periods. Students get acquainted with specific historical grammatical forms of Old and Middle Irish orthography, verbs, nouns and other parts of speech as well as the origin and development of consonantal mutations. Students will also learn about the development and decline of Gaelic civilisation and the development of Gaelic in Scotland and Isle of Man. In addition to the grammatical analyses, students will also learn about socio-historical processes that led to Irish Gaelic becoming a minority language. Finally, present-day Irish Gaelic dialects and the official standard language are discussed. The course lasts for one semester and is particularly supportive to those interested in comparative linguistics. Students are assessed on the basis of regular tests and quizzes. The course ends with an exam.

Selected bibliography:
Quin, E.G. 1975. Old Irish Workbook. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.
Strachan, John. 1949. Old Irish Paradigms and Selections from Old Irish glosses. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.
Thurneysen, Rudolf. 1998. A Grammar of Old Irish. Dublin

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